PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES OF FAMILY PLANNING AMONGST MARRIED COUPLES. A CASE STUDY OF SABON GARI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE: ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELLING.

ABSTRACT

The study was carried out to assess the problems and challenges of family planning amongst married couples. A case study of Sabon Gari Local Government Area of Kaduna State: Its implications for counseling. The method of investigation employed was the questionnaire, and interview, the informants were married couples. A total of one hundred (100) questionnaires was administered in the findings. It was discovered that majority of respondents have a pre-knowledge of what family planning is all about. It was discovered that traditional family planning methods was been preferred to modern family planning methods by the respondents. Also poverty and social cultural background were militating against family planning, religion especially Islam which frowns at family planning. However it is recommended that the government should encourage family planning in the society through the establishment of marriage guidance and counseling programmes. It is also recommended that government attention is to be  drawn to the  urgent needs towards  expanding  community based primary health centers in all our local Government areas. Non-governmental organization (NGOs) should be encouraged in their contribution to the implementation of family planning methods.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -i

Approval Page –    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        -ii

Dedication –          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Declaration –                   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Acknowledgement –       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        v

Abstract       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vii

Table of Content   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        viii

Chapter One: Introduction

1.1     Background of the Study         ­­­-        –        –        –        –        –        –        1

1.2     Statement of the Problem         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        2

1.3     Aims and Objectives of the Study      –        –        –        –        –        3

1.4     Research Questions         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        4

1.5     Research hypothesis       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        4

1.6     Significance of the Study         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        5

1.7     Assumptions of the Study        –        –        –        –        –        –        6

1.7     Scope  and Delimitation of the Study –        –        –        –        –        6

1.10   Operational Definition of Terms        –        –        –        –        –        6

Chapter Two: Literature Review

2.1     Conceptual Framework            –        –        –        –        –        –        8

2.2     Concept of Family Planning-   –        –        –        –        –        –        9

2.3     The Concept of Family Planning Counseling        –        –        –        –        22

2.4     Male Support and Family Planning Practice          –        –        –        –        29

2.5     Factors Influencing Family Planning Counseling Outcomes     –        33

2.6     Benefits of Family Planning Counseling     –                  –        –        34

2.7     Theoretical Framework   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        35

2.8     Empirical Studies on Family Planning Attitude and Practice     –        36

Chapter Three: Methodology

3.0     Introduction                   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        40

3.1     Research Design   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        40

3.2     Population            –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        40

3.3     Sample Size           –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        40

3.4     Sampling Techniques     –        –                  –        –        –        –        41

3.5     Instrument Used for Data Collection  –        –        –        –        –        41

3.6     Reliability/Validity of Instrument       –        –        –        –        –        41

3.7     Procedure for Data Collection  –        –        –        –        –        –        41

3.8     Procedure for Data Analysis               –        –        –        –        –        42

Chapter Four: Results and Discussion

4.0     Introduction          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        43

4.1     Results and Discussion   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        44

4.2     Summary of Results       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        53

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.0     Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations     –        –        –        56

5.1     Summary    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        57

5.2     Conclusions          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        59

5.3     Recommendations –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        60

References   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        62

Appendix    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        65

CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                              Introduction

  • Background of the Study

Family planning (FP) is a key component of basic health services.  It benefits the health and well-being of women, children, families, and their communities.  Enabling couples to determine whether, when, and how often to have children is vital to safe motherhood and child health.  To reduce adverse prenatal outcome, a Technical Consultation on Birth Spacing organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that couples should wait at least 24 months after the birth of their last baby before they try to conceive again.

Inadequate family planning strategies have continuously exacerbated the vulnerability of residents in Sabon Gari Local Government Area of Kaduna State and Northern Nigeria in general, culminating into high maternal and infant mortality, increasing hard core poverty, disintegration of the extended family system, high incidence of HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections and a high incidence of morbidity and mortality. At least 25% of all maternal deaths can be prevented by family planning. One in four infant deaths in northern Nigeria can be prevented by spacing birth at least two years apart (Shane 2017).  Many family planning programs have now recognized that involving men and obtaining their support and commitment in family planning is of crucial importance in Northern Nigeria because most decisions affecting family and political life are made by men. Men hold positions of leadership and influence from the family unit right through national level. Their involvements in family planning matters would therefore not only ease the responsibility borne by women in terms of decision making but would also accelerate the understanding and practice of family planning in general. This study therefore seeks to find out the problems and challenges of family planning amongst married couples. A case study of Sabon Gari Local Government Area,  Kaduna State and its implications for counseling.

  • Statement of the Problem

This research work is set to find out the problems and challenges  of family planning amongst married couples. A case study of Sabon Gari Local Government Area of Kaduna State: It implications for Counselling. Inadequate male involvement in family planning has been identified as the major factor affecting family planning acceptance in Northern Nigeria (Bala 2016). Despite a reported appreciable male involvement in family planning nationwide, in areas such as Kaduna State, Borno, Zamfara, Kano and other Northern parts of the country, male involvement is not encouraging and a barrier to even females’ acceptance and practice of family planning (Bala 2016). This has resulted in the people’s inability to provide for themselves and their families the basic necessities of life.

The Ministry of Health with the assistance from other primary health care institutions and stakeholders launched educational campaign programs MoH(2015) focusing on male involvement in family planning.  The post campaign findings indicated a significant increase in men’s family planning knowledge and practice. The issue now is how to move them beyond mere increased knowledge to changed attitude and increased practice. Even though family planning awareness is high, its uptake is as low as 15% in 2017(WHO 2017). There are barriers that may impede male involvement in family planning such as poverty, unemployment, religion, cultural and societal norms and education (Engle 2018). Men may be deeply and psychologically involved in family planning but these barriers may not allow them to demonstrate their involvement.

  • Aims and Objective of the Study

The aim of this study is to find out the problems and challenges of family planning amongst married couples in  Sabon Gari Local Government Area of Kaduna State. This would be achieved through the following objectives, which are to:

  1. Find out the effect of family planning amongst married couples in  Sabon Gari Local Government Area,  of Kaduna State.
  2. Investigate men’s attitudes, beliefs and perceptions about family planning in Sabon Gari Local Government Area, of Kaduna State.
  • Recommend the findings to developing partners, public health practitioners, Counselors, District assemblies, international communities to embark on comprehensive and participatory family planning programs in Sabon Gari Local Government Area, of Kaduna State.
    • Research Questions

The study is guided by the following research questions.

  1. What are effects of family planning amongst married couples in Sabon Gari Local Government Area, of Kaduna State?
  2. What are the attitudes, beliefs and perceptions of men towards practice of family planning in Sabon Gari Local Government Area, of Kaduna State?
  • How can counseling activities improve the participations of married couples towards the practice of family planning in Sabon Gari Local Government Area, of Kaduna State?.