This chapter deals with the background of the research work, statement of problem, objectives of the study, significance of the study, research questions, scope/limitation of the study and operational definition of terms.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The World Health Organization (WHO, 2009) estimate that quite a number of children die before their first birthdays, while others are affected with physical or mental disabilities caused by one of the six killer disease of which poliomyelitis is one of them. Others are Diphtheria, Pertusis, Tetanus, Measles and Tuberculosis.
Many epidemiological studies have demonstrated a high infant and children mobility and mortality also disability in most developing countries of the world especially from communicable and infectious disease which are mostly preventable by simple measures and routine immunization.
It is a known fact that children constitute the majority of the population in the developing countries including Nigeria and yet they suffer the consequences of poor living condition, malnutrition and infection. It is in response to this sympathetic situation that the World Health Organisation (WHO) set up a special programme; The Expended Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 1974 which was adopted in Nigeria as federal ministry of health code named national policy on immunization (NPI) on 1st September, 1985.
Its objective was to have all children in the World Immunized particularly those under one year old against these six killer diseases. However, the cases of poliomyelitis are widely distributed throughout the country, but is not unusual for the disease to occur in form of comparatively small epidemics limited to village’s towns or cities without very much evidence of spread to surroundings localities. The majority of such out breaks occur during the dry season annually but so far no adequate explanation has been advanced to account for this.
The vaccination programme is a typical example of a public health measures, it has many qualities. It is an essential measures which may prevent the death of a great number of children. It protects against infection by polio virus (poliomyelitis) which has no highly effective treatment existing. It also improves the quality of lives of many children by avoiding the physical disabilities produced by this disease.
Financially speaking, polio vaccination is much cheaper and cost for less to vaccinate everyone than to treat the disease. This is high community participation because it does not require any basic changes in people habit, way of life or even social organization.
In line with the above federal ministry of health picked up the challenge to campaign for polio vaccination and to be executed through the health care delivery system. Therefore, I will like to view the factors affecting the acceptance of oral polio vaccine COPY).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Health is very important to the development of any nation. A state of poor health reduce the output of people towards the development of their children. It was observed that the rate of child mortality and deformity associated with poliomyelitis is on the increase despite all the effort made to combat the infection, in developing countries where immunization is routine, serious childhood diseases such as Diphtheria, Pertusis, Measles and Poliomyelitis are now rare. Immunization programme in developing countries now prevent about 1.3 million deaths from poliomyelitis.
The subject matter is the problem, which will be carefully investigated enabling the researcher to look deeply into assessing the factors affecting the acceptance of oral polio vaccine as perceived by mothers of Zaria local government of Kaduna State.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
- To assess the level of awareness among mothers on polio immunization.
- To determine the attitude of mothers towards polio immunization
- To identify the socio-cultural factors that influence the acceptance of polio immunization.
- To find out the influence of educational status on the acceptance of oral polio immunization.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- What is the level of awareness among parents on polio immunization?
- What are the attitude of parents towards polio immunization?
- What are the socio-cultural’ factors that influence the acceptance of polio immunization?
- Does educational status influence the acceptance of oral polio immunization?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is significant to the community members, government and health professional.
By highlighting the findings of the study, it will help in enlightening the community and creating awareness among its members on the existence of polio and how it is prevented.
The problems identified in the study will help the government in organizing problem directed programmes that involve home visits and health education and also in finding the polio eradication programme. It will also help the health professionals by creating awareness among them on the factors that affect the acceptance of polio immunization in the area of study thereby assist in making strategies to solve the problems and it will place way for further research to be carried out on other areas identified in the study that needs further investigation.