CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
- Background to the study
The term motivation is derived from the Latin word ‘movere’ which means to move (Baron, Henley, McGibbon and McCarthy, 2012). Certo (2016) describes motivation as giving people incentives that cause them to act in desired ways. Motivation has also been described as the process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior (Nelson, 2013).
It is commonly agreed that there are two types of motivation, namely extrinsic and intrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is that behavior which an individual produces because of the pleasant experiences associated with the behavior itself (Mosley, Pietri and Mosley Jnr, 2012). They stem from motivation that is characteristic of the job itself. Examples are receiving positive recognition, appreciation, a sense of achievement and meeting the challenge. According to Beer and Walton (2014), intrinsic rewards accrue from performing the task itself, and may include the satisfaction of accomplishment or a sense of influence. Mosley, Pietri and Mosley Jnr. (2012) describe extrinsic motivation as the behavior performed, not for its own sake, but for the consequences associated with it. Examples include salary, benefits and working conditions. Extrinsic rewards come from the organization as money, perquisites or promotions from supervisors and co- workers as recognition (Beer and Walton, 2014). Employees are motivated by a combination of both factors at any given point in time (Riggio, 2013).
According to Pate (2008) the study of motivation is concerned, basically, with why people behave in a certain way. The basic underlying question is „why do people do what they do? Kovach (2000) states that despite numerous studies done on motivation, managers still are not close to understanding employees‟ motivation than their colleague more than fifty years ago. Motivation is something that moves the person to action and continues the cause of action already initiated. Motivation has the role to develop and intensify the desire of every member of the organization to work effectively and efficiently in his position. Even though money occupies a major place in the mix of motivators, money alone cannot motivate employee well to work unless it is coupled with other non-monetary motivators (Frey and Osterloch, 2002).
Globalization is being experienced by most of the organizations in Nigeria. Neeraj (2014) states that the opportunities and challenges of leadership and management are significantly different from that of the past and in particular, the last decade. Industrial psychologists and management practitioners have long been interested in searching for factors which influence motivation and productivity (Chung, 2013). According to Stanley (2012), in today’s marketplace, where companies seek a competitive edge, motivation is key for talent retention and performance. No matter the economic environment, the goal is to create a workplace that is engaging and motivating, where employees want to stay, grow and contribute their knowledge, experience and expertise.
Chung (2013) continues to state that in an effort to find the determinants of motivation and performance in industry, industrial psychologists and managerial practitioners have developed a variety of theories of (and approaches to) human motivation. Many psychologists have developed motivational theories in terms of human needs or motives, while most management scholars have developed managerial theories in terms of incentives or inducements (Riggio, 2014)
Traditionally, the study of job performance has been based on two somewhat independent assumptions: that performance can be understood in terms of the individual’s ability to perform the tasks, and that performance depends solely upon the level of motivation (Chung, 2013). Motivation is generally defined as the psychological forces that determine the direction of a person’s level of effort, as well as a person’s persistence in the face of obstacles (Stanley, 2012).
The responsibility for motivation is three-fold: it falls on the senior leadership, the direct manager and the employee (Bhuvanaiah and Raya, 2015). Numerous factors are involved, from trust, engagement and values (individual and organizational) to job satisfaction, achievement, acknowledgement and rewards. Motivation is essential for working autonomously, as well as for collaboration and effective teamwork (Stanley, 2012). Motivating employees for better performance encompasses these critical factors: employee engagement, organizational vision and values, management acknowledgment and appreciation of work well done, and overall authenticity of leadership (Neeraj, 2014).
- Statement of the problem
In a highly competitive, global environment, organizations are constantly under pressure to retain their workforce (Deci, 2013). Highly skilled, reliable and experienced employees are a valuable asset for any organization. It is evident that highly motivated employees are more likely to have high productivity. However, according to Certo (2006), good performance is not as a result of motivation only, but also includes ability i.e. skills, equipment, supplies and time.
Some organizations have been known to experience a high staff turnover despite offering above average salaries (Aguinis, 2012). This tells us that money is not the only way to motivate employees. Additionally, different people are motivated by different factors. It is important for managers and supervisors to understand what motivates individual employees, and not assume a one-size-fits-all approach (George and Jones, 2013).
An organization is only as strong as its workforce. Human resources need to be treated with great care, since they are a special resource that needs to be given special managerial attention and time. (Storey, 2013). Therefore, studies like this are an invaluable resource in helping organizations identify and maximize on ways to motivate employees whilst mitigating employee turnover and under-performance (Steers and Porter, 2011).
With that in mind, I decided to carry out research Nigerian Breweries Company Kakuri Kaduna, into the effect of motivation on workers performance. It is the human resource amongst other factors of production in the organization which really makes a distinction (Kreitner and Kinicki, 2013). Production is considered as satisfactory when gross commission brought in by an agent is high. It is human capability and commitment which ultimately differentiate successful organizations from those that fail (Deci, 2013).
- Objectives of the study
This section deals with the general objective and specific objectives of the study.
The general objective of the study is to determine the Effect of Motivation on workers Performance: An Empirical Evidence from the Nigerian Breweries Company Kaduna.
The Specific objectives
The specific objectives are as follows:
- To identify factors that motivates employees in the Nigerian Breweries company Kakuri Kaduna
- To identify factors that serve as dissatisfaction among workers in Nigerian Breweries company Kakuri Kaduna
- To determine the employees performance in Nigerian Breweries company Kakuri Kaduna
- To assess the effect of motivation on the employees performance in Nigerian Breweries company Kakuri Kaduna
- To determine ways to which motivation can be improved among the workers of the Nigerian Breweries company Kakuri Kaduna
- Research Hypothesis
This section deals with the formulation of the research hypothesis that will help to achieve the objectives of the study. They are:
Ho: There is no significant relationship between motivation and workers performance in the Nigerian Breweries company Kakuri Kaduna.
Hi: There is a significant relationship between motivation and workers performance in the Nigerian Breweries company Kakuri Kaduna.